Most of the differences between programming languages are due to their different purposes. If we compare the source stories of Java and C++, we will see that their creators have set different goals.
In 1979, while working with the Simula language, Bjarne Stroustrup noted that his principles of object-oriented programming were very useful in software development. To explain it simply, this means that the system treats each and every component as a separate object, rather than focusing on the procedures. However, Simula fell short on performance speed and Stroustrup decided to work on a whole new language. He took the C language quickly and functionally, complemented it with object-oriented programming, and called his C-creation with classes. The team changed it to C++ in 1983, ++ representing the increment operator. The latest version is C++ 17, introduced in 2017.
In the early 1990s, C++ was extremely popular with programmers. No wonder: it was fast, efficient and general purpose. However, there was one problem: as with C, C++ was not a neutral platform. This meant that a program written with one piece of hardware would not work on the other, and the same goes for software. As the number of electronic devices grew, this became a problem. The software was no longer unique to computers. Music players, mobile phones, remotes and a lot of other things needed it, too.
Therefore, in 1991, a Sun Microsystems team began working on Java (which at the time was called Oak). Its main principle was WORA - Write Once, Run Anywhere, which made it perfect for integrated systems. The creators took the well-known C-style syntax and based a new language on it. Like C++, it had to be object-oriented and fast-performance, yet easily portable and platform-neutral, as well as ensuring safety and robustness. The final product became popular quite quickly and major web browsers also offered support for Java applets. Currently, the latest version is Java SE 13, introduced in September 2021.
Since Java has been strongly influenced by C++, it is natural for these languages to share many similarities, with the syntax being the most obvious. Both have been based on the same C language, and the Java team chose to do so deliberately to make the syntax of the new language seem familiar to developers who worked primarily with C++ at the time. You will notice that many keywords are actually the same (public, private, static, interrupt, continue, char, etc.), as well as some groups of operators (arithmetic and relational).
Both Java and C++ support very similar primitive types. There are small inconsistencies (such as the same type being called Boolean in Java and bool in C++), but that's it. Even comments are written in the same way: you can start with two slashes (//) or use a single forward slash with an asterisk (start with / * and end with * /).
There is no distinction in writing when we also compare Java with C++: both are static write. When encoding in languages like this, the developer has to declare each variable name explicitly, which means linking it to a particular data type. Unlike a dynamically written language, if an object of a different type is assigned as its value, the system throws a type exception. Typically, both are also compiled, which means that you must use a compiler, rather than an interpreter. A compiler converts the source code that you typed in Java or C++ to machine-readable instructions. Then the machine can run them.
While C++ was the leader of the object-oriented programming principle, both Java and C++ support it. However, there is one distinction to keep in mind when talking about Java versus C++. While not frequently used, C++ has the advantage of also supporting procedure scheduling. This programming model is based on procedure calls. The system structures each declaration into functions, also known as procedures. This makes C++ a multi-paradigm programming language.
Distinctions you can’t miss
You know that the main difference between C++ and Java is the fact that Java is a neutral platform and C++ is not. In addition to this, there are many smaller but significant unique points for each language.
When comparing Java syntax with C++, you will soon notice that only the latter supports pointers. Simply put, a pointer is a variable type, which has an address to another variable as its value. They are convenient to use when encoding, but you should manage them carefully: not doing so can cause memory leaks. That's why C++ sometimes falls short in terms of security where Java doesn't.
Unlike C++, Java supports threads natively. Think of a thread in a process so thin that the system can run some of them simultaneously. In such a case, the central processing unit (CPU) needs fewer cycles and the system operates more efficiently. The Java team called this process multithreaded, and C++ has no such functionality. However, Java allows a class or object to inherit features from a single parent, while C++ supports multiple inheritance.
Another big difference between C++ and Java is the way it handles memory control. In C++, allocate and deal from memory manually, using special functions. Java has a garbage collection function, which means that the system takes care of it automatically. However, when we compare Java with C++ in this function, it's hard to tell which one is better. While the automatic system is always easier, there are cases where a developer may prefer to have control in their own hands later.
Practical use has the last word
For most developers, the reason for choosing one programming language over the other is their field of use. Both Java Vs C + + are the best Programming language, but while the former is most commonly used for applications, C++ developers focus on system programming. As you know, Java also has a slight advantage due to the WORD principle. Code portability allows for more deployment possibilities.
Nearly three decades after its creation, Java remains the basic language for integrated systems. You can find them everywhere, from the small SIM cards of our mobile phones to modern smart home systems. However, it is not the only scope in which you can use it. Java is also a smarter choice for aspiring mobile device developers: it's used throughout Android software, and by the end of 2021, Android dominates the market entirely with more than 85 percent of smartphones worldwide. . Java is also fine for web and desktop applications. Because it is powerful enough to handle significant amounts of data, it is a popular choice in the e-commerce, finance and science sectors.
You can also use C++ for desktop, mobile, and web applications. The difference is that C++ is often best considered for projects that work with hardware directly because it allows you to better control resources. These projects include web browsers, database management systems, compilers, and even operating systems.
Another strength of C++ lies in game development. It is used in Unreal Engine, which holds the official title of the most successful video game engine since 2014. By coding in C++, you can create anything from basic racing games to complex and visually appealing MMORPG. It is also technically possible to write games in Java; Minecraft is a great example of that. However, when comparing Java with C++, the latter has the advantage of not having the garbage collection feature. While it is suitable for some systems, it basically steals direct control of memory, which is crucial for writing games.